By Song Q., Zhang Y.
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Additional info for 1.55um Wavelength Operation of E(3+,r)-Doped Optical Fiber Bistability
W net = rate of net or shaft work transfer, ms = mass of fluid within the system, us = specific internal energy of system, and Q = rate of heat transfer (neglecting kinetic and potential energy). hi = he + w Efficiency (turbine) = wrev = – v (P2 – P1) hes − hi he − hi Throttling Valves and Throttling Processes: No work, no heat transfer, and single-mass stream. Velocity terms often insignificant. Constant Temperature: hi = he (ideal gas) Pv = constant: Boilers, Condensers, Evaporators, One Side in a Heat Exchanger: Heat transfer terms are significant.
A special form of the dimensionally homogeneous equation is one that involves only dimensionless groups of terms. , M, L, T) needed to express the variables dimensionally. = dynamic viscosity, = pressure, and = acceleration of gravity. 399 µ × 103, Pa⋅⋅s 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Viscositya, 2 Specific Weighta, γ , kN/m3 To obtain dynamic similarity between two flow pictures, all independent force ratios that can be written must be the same in both the model and the prototype. Thus, dynamic similarity between two flow pictures (when all possible forces are acting) is expressed in the five simultaneous equations below.
622pv /(p – pv) Relative Humidity φ: φ = mv /mg = pv /pg, where Coefficient of Performance (COP) is defined as: COP = QH /W for heat pump, and as mg = mass of vapor at saturation, and COP = QL/W for refrigerators and air conditioners. pg = saturation pressure at T. Enthalpy h: h = ha + ωhv Upper limit of COP is based on reversed Carnot Cycle: Dew-Point Temperature Tdp: COPc = TH /(TH – TL) for heat pump and Tdp = Tsat at pg = pv COPc = TL /(TH – TL) for refrigeration. Wet-bulb temperature Twb is the temperature indicated by a thermometer covered by a wick saturated with liquid water and in contact with moving air.
1.55um Wavelength Operation of E(3+,r)-Doped Optical Fiber Bistability by Song Q., Zhang Y.