By Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)
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Additional info for 3D Contrast MR Angiography
Respiratory and cardiac movement can impair non-contrast MRA image quality to the point of rendering scans of the thoracic aorta uninterpretable. Fast GRE and turbo-SE sequences permit data acquisition of increasingly large scan volumes in apnea, thereby eliminating respiratory motion. With non-contrast MRA, some form of ECG gating remains necessary. ECG gating, however, can be difficult; it complicates the setup of an exam and prolongs actual data acquisition times. Furthermore, gating often fails to function properly in patients with cardiac arrhythmia or emphysema.
As in other vascular territories, the fast, breath-held 3D MRA acquisition technique requires timing the contrast bolus with either an automatic trigger or a test bolus. For imaging aortic aneurysms, which con- Technique 55 a b Fig. 1. Normal Aorta. Clinical Scenario: 42-year-old male with ehest pain referred for MRA of the thoraeie aorta. 75 NEX, Field-of-View = 380x380x120 mm, Matrix = 256x160x40 with zero fiUing interpolation in the slice direction to create 80 slices, centric ordering of k-space, Acquisition Time = 37 s, 40 ml gadolinium contrast infused at 2 ml/s, timed empiricaUy.
This is done by first scrolling through the data with axial reformations in order to identify the celiac, the superior mesenteric artery, and the inferior mesenteric artery. These reformations will show the angle at which these vessels arise from the aorta. A subvolume that is oriented at this angle with sufficient thickness to include the celiac, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, and abdominal aorta can then be positioned using these axial reformations as a guide. Then, when the maximum intensity projection images acquired through this subvolume of Endoscopic "VirtuaI" Surface Rendering 33 data, it will show the anterior and posterior margins of the aorta as well as the origins of the celiac, superior mesenteric artery, and inferior mesenterie artery in profile for evaluation of atherosclerotie disease.
3D Contrast MR Angiography by Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)