In accordance with the weight and resistance issue layout philosophy (LRFD), this ebook is the results of a five-year learn attempt lower than AASHTO's nationwide Cooperative street examine application (NCHRP) undertaking 12-42, and a persevered attempt via AASHTO technical committees. This significant step in more advantageous bridge layout and extra exact research is anticipated to steer to bridges showing more desirable serviceability, more desirable long term maintainability, and extra uniform degrees of safeguard. because the First version was once released in 1994, the provisions have persisted to be up-to-date and stronger according to carrying on with examine and the event of the person neighborhood. the hot requisites were systematically validated in trial designs and feature now been applied via all 50 states, with forty eight states totally applied.
incorporated during this digital version are the 2008 and 2009 meantime Revisions. Following every one bankruptcy the revisions are pointed out in addition to associated during the whole e-book the place to be had. See the replaced and Deleted Articles sections for an entire record of adjustments to every part.
Preface and Abbreviated desk of Contents
desk of Contents
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2007
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2008
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2009
Section 1. Introduction
Section 2. basic layout and placement Features
Section three. quite a bit and cargo Factors
Section four. Structural research and Evaluation
Section five. Concrete Structures
Section 6. metal Structures
Section 7. Aluminum Structures
Section eight. wooden Structures
Section nine. Decks and Deck Systems
Section 10. Foundations
Section eleven. Abutments, Piers, and Walls
Section 12. Buried constructions and Tunnel Liners
Section thirteen. Railings
Section 14. Joints and Bearings
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Additional resources for AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Customary U.S. Units with 2008 and 2009 U.S. Edition Interim Revisions
Where conditions dictate a need to construct the top of a footing to an elevation above the streambed, attention shall be given to the scour potential of the design. When fendering or other pier protection systems are used, their effect on pier scour and collection of debris shall be taken into consideration in the design. bridge as necessary to reflect anticipated changes in the channel profile and plan form; Determine the combination of existing or likely future conditions and flood events that might be expected to result in the deepest scour for design conditions; Determine water surface profiles for a stream reach that extends both upstream and downstream of the bridge site for the various combinations of conditions and events under consideration; Determine the magnitude of contraction scour and local scour at piers and abutments; and Evaluate the results of the scour analysis, taking into account the variables in the methods used, the available information on the behavior of the watercourse, and the performance of existing structures during past floods.
Spread footings on soil or erodible rock shall be located so that the bottom of footing is below scour depths determined for the check flood for scour. Spread footings on scour-resistant rock shall be designed and constructed to maintain the integrity of the supporting rock. Deep foundations with footings shall be designed to place the top of the footing below the estimated contraction scour depth where practical to minimize obstruction to flood flows and resulting local scour. Even lower elevations should be considered for pile-supported footings where the piles could be damaged by erosion and corrosion from exposure to stream currents.
Components are shaped to respond to the structural function. They are thick where the stresses are greatest and thin where the stresses are smaller. The function of each part and how the function is performed is visible. Components are slender and widely spaced, preserving views through the structure. The bridge is seen as a single whole, with all members consistent and contributing to that whole; for example, all elements should come from the same family of shapes, such as shapes with rounded edges.
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Customary U.S. Units with 2008 and 2009 U.S. Edition Interim Revisions